5S Methodology

To the extent that the organization represents the means that it allows the people who collaborate in it to achieve its individual goals, it is a factor that has a representative impact on the behavior of the organization’s collaborators. In parallel with the behaviour, performance is also closely linked to working conditions, so that organizational objectives, as a result of the summary of individual efforts, are within reach of an efficient and productive environment.

What are 5S?

The 5S methodology was created at Toyota in the 1960s and groups together a series of activities that are carried out with the aim of creating working conditions that allow the execution of work in an organized, orderly and clean way. These conditions are created through strengthening good habits of behavior and social interaction, creating an efficient and productive working environment.

The 5S methodology is of Japanese origin, and is so named since the first letter of the name of each of its stages is the letter ese(s).

Specific objectives of the 5S methodology

  • Improve and maintain organizational, order and clean conditions in the workplace.
  • Through a neat and clean working environment, safety, motivational and efficiency conditions are created.
  • Eliminate waste or waste from your organization.
  • Improve the quality of the organization.

Principles of the 5S methodology

This methodology consists of five fundamental principles:

  1. Classification or Organization: Seiri
  2. Order: Seiton
  3. Cleaning: Seiso
  4. Standardization: Seiketsu
  5. Discipline: Shitsuke

1. Classification or Organization (Seiri)

Classify consists of:

  • Identify the nature of each element: Separate what really serves what you don’t; identify what is necessary of the unnecessary, whether tools, equipment, tools or information.

The tools to use are:

The most commonly used tool for classification is the check sheet, in which we can consider the nature of each element, and whether it is necessary or not.

The advantages of classifying are:

Once this principle is met, the following benefits will be obtained:

  • You get extra space
  • Excess obsolete tools and objects are removed
  • Unnecessary movements are decreased
  • Excessive time in inventories is eliminated
  • Waste is removed

2. Order (Seiton)

Sorting consists of:

  • Have an appropriate site for each element that has been considered necessary.
  • Have properly identified sites to locate infrequently used items.
  • Use visual identification, in such a way as to allow people outside the area to make a correct arrangement.
  • Identify the degree of usefulness of each element, to make a arrangement that decreases unnecessary movements:
Frequency of useDisposal
He uses it at all times.Keep it handy, use straps or ribbons that join the object to the person
He uses it several times a dayHaving the person close
He uses it every day, not at all times.Have it on the workbench or near the machine
He uses it every week.
He uses it once a monthPlace it near the workplace
He uses it less than once a month, possibly once every two or three monthsPlace it in the warehouse, perfectly located
  • Determine the exact amount of each item.
  • Create convenient means for each item to return to its place of disposition once used.

The tools to use are:

The advantages of ordering are:

  • Search times are reduced
  • Change times are reduced
  • Unsafe conditions are removed
  • Less space is taken up
  • Disruptions are avoided in the process

3. Cleaning (Seiso)

Cleaning consists of:

  • Integrating cleanliness as part of the job
  • Take on cleanliness as a self-contained, routine maintenance activity
  • Eliminate the difference between process operator and cleaning operator
  • Eliminate sources of contamination, not just dirt

The tools to use are:

The advantages of cleaning are:

  • Keeping a workplace clean increases employee motivation
  • Cleanliness increases knowledge about equipment
  • Increases tool and equipment life
  • Increases process quality
  • Improves the customer’s perception of processes and product

4. Standardization (Seiketsu)

Standardizing consists of:

  • Maintain the degree of organization, order and cleanliness achieved with the first three phases; through signage, manuals, procedures and support rules.
  • Instruct employees in the design of supporting standards.
  • Use visual evidence about how areas, equipment, and tools should be maintained.
  • Use molds or templates to preserve order.

The tools to use are:

5. Discipline (Shitsuke)

Discipline consists of:

  • Establish a culture of respect for established standards, and for achievements in organization, order and cleanliness
  • Promote the habit of self-control about the remaining principles of the methodology
  • Promoting the philosophy that everything can be done better
  • Learning by doing
  • Teaching by example
  • Make the results of the 5S methodology visible

Tools to use:

  • 5S check sheet
  • Round of 5S

Advantages of discipline:

  • The habit of organization, order and cleanliness is created through continuous training and disciplined execution of the rules.

Paradigms that oppose the development of the 5S methodology

Address

  • The individual goals of the collaborators have nothing to do with the organizational objectives.
  • Workers don’t take care of their work area, so you can waste time on that.
  • The equipment must not stop, here the important thing is to produce, not to clean.
  • It’s cheaper to hire someone to clean up

Collaborators

  • I get paid to work, not to clean up.
  • Why clean up, if everything gets dirty again.
  • I’ve been in the company a long time, I’ve always worked the same, I don’t see why clean now.
  • What we need is more space to store.

Trends: The 9S

The 9S methodology is a slightly more complex and comprehensive trend, containing the traditional 5S and adding 4S that relate to the personal growth of individuals. Thus it is composed of the following principles:

  • Operational phases: Organization, order and cleanliness
  • Standardization phases: Standardization
  • Continuous improvement phases: Discipline
  • Personal improvement phases: Consistency, commitment, coordination and synchronization

It is common in practice to develop a methodology of 9S in two stages, the first that instructs employees in the traditional 5S and the second that instructs collaborators in the disciplines of coordination, commitment, constancy and synchronization, through the principles of effective management, through a program of management skills.

Waste disposal

One of the points at which the Toyota production system, designed by Taiichi Ohno, focuses on the elimination of waste. The concept of waste must be identified, in order to distinguish it from cost, in such a way that we define waste or waste as excessive, superficial, non-value-added, and unnecessaryly eliminated. 

Cost reduction, unlike waste disposal, often requires considerable technical effort, and substantial changes or decisions that change process conditions or characteristics, so that a measure such as changing equipment with lower KW/h consumption can be considered as a cost reduction; in turn, a measure such as the ignition control of the luminaires, so that the lights are turned off when there is sufficient natural light, will decrease the consumption of KW/h, and can be considered as the elimination of a waste.

WHAT ARE THE SEVEN WASTES?

Taiichi Ohno, Japanese expert who created the Just In Time or Toyota production system, identified within his production methodology that existed in the processes, a series of waste that was frequently detected, in such a way that he classified them into seven groups, which he called: The Seven Wastes, these are:

  1. Overproduction: Overproduction is considered to be manufacturing not in line with the quantities demanded.
  2. Wait: This waste involves both passive personnel and inactive machinery.
  3. Transportation: Handling and transfer of materials or documents that do not add value are considered waste.
  4. Operating waste: Performing unnecessary activities and/or making use of unhealthy machinery or tools.
  5. Inventory: Obsolete units (materials, spare parts, product), excess stock, or intermediate storage.
  6. Unnecessary movements: Whether unnecessary or uncomfortable are considered wasteful.
  7. Defective Products: These are products or services related to claims, warranties or rejections.

Over time, the underutilization of intellectual capital has been considered, i.e. the non-use of the intelligence, imagination and creativity of all the people of the organization, as an eighth waste.

HOW TO REMOVE WASTE?

It is recommended that the dynamics for the elimination of waste from the organization be integrated with a Kaizen program, making use of its systematic methodology of analysis and problem solving involving staff, and with a criterion of minimum investment, through continuous improvement.

IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE

It is important that the scenario or tools in which the identified waste can be recorded are constantly open and available to staff so that they can be mapped shortly. In practice, tools such as TPM cards are used, through which waste is identified by any worker and delivered to a TPM management manager, who watches over the solution of waste. Another procedure that usually takes place is the comment and contribution wheel to identify waste.

Whatever tool is used there is a cross-cutting technique of support in the identification, analysis and causal solution of waste, this is the “technique of interrogation”, through this technique we can conclude quickly about the existence and real cause of waste.

ELIMINATION OF WASTE

The important thing for an efficient waste removal dynamic is its express solution and the inclusion of staff at all stages of improvement. That is why, depending on the technique used in the identification methodology, the person responsible for the corrective action and the deadline for verifying the outcome of the measure will be duly recorded.

It is common for identification and disposal work to be carried out by area, as is it often that areas with a greater number of minor improvements through the elimination of waste are predicted as an incentive for participation.

SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Dies)

When we intend to implement a lean manufacturing or lean manufacturing system in our processes, it is common to face the restriction of the generation of safety inventories, either product in transit or finished product, as the effect of two main causes, these are sudden breakdowns, and time lost in enlistment processes due to possible reference changes.

In the case of enlistment or preparation time, the traditional solution that seeks to mitigate its impact is the planning of large production batches, minimizing the number of changes, but affecting the flexibility of production, and managing collaterally to increase inventory levels.

What is the SMED technique?

One of the most successful techniques in reducing time lost per preparation is the SMED (Single Minute Exchange Die) methodology. This methodology developed by Shigeo Shingo is of Japanese origin, and was first implemented for Toyota in the 1970s. The hypothesis underlying the SMED implies that a reduction in preparation times allows us to work with smaller batches, i.e. shorter manufacturing times, resulting in a substantial improvement in delivery times and product levels in transit.

The implementation of the SMED method consists in the development of four phases:

1. Separate internal operations from external operations

This first phase involves differentiating between preparation with the stopped machine (internal preparation) and preparation with the machine in operation (external preparation). In the first case, reference is made to those operations that inevitably require the machine to be stopped. The second case refers to the operations that can be performed with the machine running. The first step is to differentiate this type of operations, that is, when the machine is stopped, no external preparation operation should be performed. In operations with the stopped machine, only the removal and placement of the particular elements of each product (moulds, dies, adjustments etc.) must be carried out. A support activity that can support this phase is the realization of a video, which will help us to separate these operations and see the real time of change, as well as the time improvements. 

For example, the preparation or enlistment of Team A involves the realization of activities 1, 2, and 3; however, after the separation phase it was identified that activity 3 corresponds to an external cleaning, which can be performed with the equipment in operation, why was it included in the preparation? It is normal that this question has no answer, or that its answer is: Because it has always been done like this. 

From now on, when performing only activities 1 and 2, we will be able to observe an improvement in the preparation time of Team A.

2. Convert internal operations to external

It is clear that this activity should be carried out as long as possible. However, the conversion of internal to external activities is not limited in any way to preparation activities on the machine when the machine is operating, since there are countless activities that constitute a conversion of internal to external activities without safety commitments, such as pre-heating of injection molds, prior to being mounted on the machine. The SMED method has been successfully applied in Formula 1, specifically in the well-known “Pit stop”, and at these stops we can see great application of this phase of the method, such as the presets that have the elements of fastening of the tires, this constitutes the conversion of an internal activity into an external one.

3. Organizing external operations

This phase is based on the arrangement of all tools and materials (arrays, fasteners, etc.) that support external operations. These elements must be arranged next to the machine after any repair of the components to be entered. It is usual that at this stage some type of investment must be made in maintenance, storage, food or transport assets. For example, in the enlistment of injection molds, a critical activity is the transport of these, which is why a specialized crane or forklift with specific adjustments is a very good tool, also, the place where the molds are stored has a corollary effect on the distance traveled (involves time) to make a possible change. To have a clear view of this phase, it is recommended to observe the arrangement of the tools in a “pit stop”.

4. Reduce the time of internal operations

This phase is basically to minimize adjustment processes. This type of process is considered to be between 50% and 70% of internal preparation operations. One of the best reduction methods is the standardization of the characteristics of the moving elements of the machines. Another key aspect in this phase goes through the parameterization and adjustment times to achieve the quality of the product, in this case, we should focus on setting a standard of the operations of the tooling change process that directly relates to the quality parameters. In this case, engineering improvements are frequently used to obtain such results.

Example of applying the SMED method

The following example was drawn from the “Production and Logistics” Innovation Guide to illustrate the actual application of the SMED method:

Gallina Blanca Purina (now Affinity Petfoods) established the SMED systematic methodology in the Monjos plant for the change of granulator matrices to produce feed and extruders to produce Petfoods. The change time of the granulator matrices increased from 58 to 23.5 minutes, i.e. it was halved. 

In this way, more than twice as many different products could be produced at the same time and the flexibility of the installation was thus doubled.

SMED lean manufacturing technique - www.ingenieriaindustrialonline.com

ANDON: Visual Control

Most of the information people collect comes from signs and signs. We live daily with multiple signals around us and consciously, or not, we use them to increase our understanding of our environment, facilitating constant decision-making with a high degree of independence.

What is Andon?

Andon is an expression of Japanese origin that means “lamp” and relates to visual control. In turn, it is considered as an element of the Lean Manufacturing philosophy, which brings together a set of practical communication measures used for the purpose of obviously and simply capturing the state of some productive system.

The above is a definition, so to speak, general. In reality visual control as a communication technique has multiple applications, perhaps the most important are related to the identification of anomalies and waste; and its main purposes are to facilitate both decision-making and staff participation, providing information about how their performance influences results, thus ensuring that you can have greater control over your goals. It can then be said that visual control empowers and motivates staff through information.

It is very important to emphasize that visual control is a tool that should support the measurement of processes, not people. So if the measurement allows to identify the performance of individuals, attitudes towards responsibilities, not personal consequences, should be generated.

When should Visual Control be implemented?

As a communication tool, visual control should focus on information that represents added value in a process. So it is usual for its implementation to always be welcome, and is an ideal complement to methodologies such as 5’s, waste disposal, SMED and many others. It is advisable to prioritize those processes in which we identify opportunities for improvement through signage, as an indicator of actions and decision-making.

Its implementation can be carried out, among many others, in the areas of:

  • Process or manufacture.
  • Storage.
  • Equipment.
  • Quality assurance.
  • Maintenance.
  • Security.
  • Organizational management.
  • Offices.

It is worth noting that the implementation of visual control must follow a systematic process, for which it is important to consider, among others, the following issues:

  • Does the process we want to control add value?
  • What indicators do we want to monitor?
  • According to the calculation of the indicator, where should it be monitored?
  • How are nonconformities or anomalous situations identified?
  • Who or how is the information recorded?
  • How can indicators be reviewed?
  • What action should be taken according to the indicator information?
  • What decisions should be made according to the indicator information?

What are the benefits of visual control?

The main benefit of visual control lies in improving the flow of relevant information, and standardizing communication. In addition, implementing Andon or visual control can contribute to:

  • Remove waste or move.
  • Improve quality.
  • Improve response time.
  • Improve security.
  • Standardize procedures.
  • Improve work planning.
  • Contribute to order and organization.
  • Stimulate participation.
  • Motivate the staff.
  • Reduce costs.

Types of visual control (Andon)

As mentioned above, visual control has multiple application methods, these fit different objectives and can be broadly classified into:

  • Visual control of equipment and spaces.
  • Visual control of production.
  • Visual control at the workplace.
  • Visual quality control.
  • Visual security control.
  • Indicator management. 

Below are some of the most commonly used visual control practices.

Alarms

Alarms are a basic type of audio-visual control, usually used to communicate urgent situations. It is normal for organizations to be assigned different warning relationships according to the number or type of sounds. For example:

  • 1 Sound: Security situation involving alert to the company’s security department.
  • 2 Sounds: Security situation involving alert and call to the entire security brigade of the company. The rest of the collaborators should remain vigilant, but they can continue their work.
  • 3 Sounds: Serious security situation involving alert and call for the entire company security brigade. The rest of the collaborators should evacuate calmly and go to the established shelter sites.

In addition, it is common for alarms to be tested once a week, on the same day and at the same time.

COLOR LAMPS (TORRETAS)

Colored lamps, also known as turrets, are installed on production lines, equipment or manufacturing cells; for the purpose of communicating the status of them. They are usually used in very numerous lines and eventually replaced by colored flags. Each color represents a state, and the relationship state- colors varies from company to company, however it is common to find that:

  • White / Blue: Problems related to the raw material (e.g. supply).
  • Green: Equipment or cell operating normally.
  • Yellow: Equipment or cell inactive due to some maintenance failure. If the light is flashing it may represent a reference change.
  • Red: Equipment or cell with quality problems, or in which an accident occurs.
Andon - Turrets
Machine-indicator light turret

Installing these elements involves establishing an action protocol, so that the state representing the turret seeks to attract the attention of a person responsible for: sourcing, maintenance, security, production, or a supervisor.

LESSONS FROM A POINT

A One Point Lesson, also known as LUP, is a communication tool, used for the transfer of simple or brief knowledge and skills. It is worth clarifying that although the knowledge transmitted through a LUP is inconscient and unproficient, it must be reviewed and approved, and does not replace a Standard Operating Plan (POE), in fact it can be used as a complement to an SOP, or to transmit information that does not require it. A good LUP should essentially allow for easy, clear and accurate learning.

For example, it is normal for the handling of printing or photocopying equipment to be carried out by a person, and that some workers do not know about the operation of the equipment; so a LUP detailing the operation steps of the computer can be very useful at any given time.

Even lessons from a point can complement different methods of visual control, so for example, a contributor can create a LUP in which he specifies the meaning of the colors of the “turrets” installed on the production lines, or the meaning of the “safety pyramid”.

INFORMATION BOARDS

Information boards are visual control tools used to give automatic and continuous traceability or tracking to the production plan. In practice the board is usually programmed with a counter whose rhythm is based on the takt time (customer purchase rate). 

It is also scheduled with another counter that is updated with the records of finished units sent directly from the line. So the takt counter can be considered as the goal, and the difference in actual process productivity can be evident.

“Productivity means doing things in such a way that, in the case of the company, it is as close as possible to its goal. Anything that brings a company closer to its goal is productive; anything that does not carry it is unproductive.” The Goal (Eliyahu Goldratt).

Control Boards - www.ingenieriaindustrialonline.com

CHECKLISTS

Checklists or checklists are visual control tools that allow activities to be carried out in accordance with a previously established procedure. These lists have a myriad of applications, and are often used to follow safety and maintenance procedures to the foot.

MARKS ON THE FLOOR

One of the main visual control tools to implement order, organization and standardization are marks on the ground. These brands are usually made by means of vinyl tapes for the purpose of identifying point workstations, product, raw material, to identify transit areas, caution and safe areas. It is common to find that the color ratio is done as follows:

  • Green area: Indicates good product.
  • Blue area: Indicates raw material and product in process.
  • Red area: Indicates non-compliant product.
  • Yellow/white marking: Delimits corridors, safe transit areas.
  • Black and white marking: Delimits maintenance areas.
  • Black and yellow marking: Delimits precautionary areas.
  • Red and white marking: Delimits safety areas.
Plant Signaling - www.ingenieriaindustrialonline.com

They are certainly an essential visual control tool, which denotes organization and prevents chaos.

MARKING JOBS

Like floor marking, job marking is an important tool for implementing order, organization, and standardization. They certainly contribute to the improvement of workstation efficiency.

Job Marking - www.ingenieriaindustrialonline.com

RESULTS BOARD

Result dashboards, also called performance dashboards, are a visual control tool used for the inclusion of performance indicators. Its main function is to demonstrate how the performance of collaborators influences the results of processes, lines and organizational objectives. These tools are very rich in relevant information and added value, according to this, a collaborator after analyzing a results board will have a broad idea of the state of the processes, therefore contributes, among other things, to line changes, to the speed of response, to plant presentations, to the motivation of the staff, etc.

SECURITY PYRAMID

The safety pyramid is a visual control tool used to represent the indicators set in Bird’s causation theory. It shows us the proportionality between accidents with loss of working days, accidents without loss of working days, accidents with material damage and incidents. In addition, it can be supplemented with safe days indicators and safe practices.

Safety Pyramid - www.ingenieriaindustrialonline.com

As has been evident, there can be as many methods of visual control as possible; the important thing is that there is a high degree of commitment of the management of the organization in the implementation of the control tools, this depends on the interest that collaborators give to these methodologies.

Similarly, it is important to consider that training staff in understanding visual control tools is an essential step.

One-Point Lesson (OPL)

In order to implement a philosophy of continuous improvement or Kaizen, the search for alternatives that facilitate the transmission and learning of knowledge should be initiated, in the same way that they contribute to the implementation of a standard in operations that develop in the organization. The fourth principle of the Kaizen methodology proposes the active participation of staff at all stages of continuous improvement, including skills transfer.

A fundamental requirement for the implementation of a process of continuous improvement, is undoubtedly the high commitment of management, whose main function is the creation of scenarios and provision of participation tools, which link all the staff of the organization with the cycles of improvement. 

One of the main support tools that an organization can come to rely on based on participation needs is the One Point Lesson (LUP), a current communication tool that leverages the company’s intellectual capital.

What is a One Point Lesson or LUP?

The One Point Lesson (LUP) also known as the OPL by the acronym One Point Lesson, is a communication tool, used for the transfer of simple or brief knowledge and skills. It is worth clarifying that although the knowledge transmitted through a LUP is inconscient and unproficient, it must be reviewed and approved, and does not replace a Standard Operating Plan (POE), in fact it can be used as a complement to an SOP, or to transmit information that does not require it. A good LUP should essentially allow for easy, clear and accurate learning.

What is the main purpose of the One Point Lesson?

We can find several objectives, but I would highlight the following:

  • How to ensure knowledge transfer; let us know what to do, why we have to do it that way and what it’s good for us to do it that way.
  • Have the information and knowledge at the right time and at the minimum possible time (process, procedures, documents, indicators, …) right at the time that is needed.
  • It is also very useful to develop cases related to problems, errors, defects, deficiencies, … identifying causes and effects and preventing their recurrence.
  • And even to document the processes of implementing an improvement; initial situation, tasks performed, indicators that allow to check the desired progress and the desired final situation.

It is a methodology that I can assure you helps to motivate the group work, getting that the objects described above, do not fall into a broken sack.

And it helps us to increase the commitment and involvement of the person with the working group by being reflected in continuous improvement.

What would be the minimum information we should have in The Lesson of a Point?

I always advocate a practical and simple design, without embellishments

So simple how to make sure it contains the following information:

  • Who has crafted the Lesson of a Point
  • On what date, in order to control the current version
  • Type of lesson that we want to transmit, for example, if it is a safety capsule, an improvement practice, an environmental activity….
  • Person reviewing and approving the One Point Lesson
  • And finally and most importantly: the description of the knowledge we want to convey. The tasks and activities to achieve the goal with this One Point Lesson. Here you can better use graphics, images, infographics (how fashionable they are) etc.

Once prepared and transmitted it is advised that it be available in its place of use. For example, exposed on a bulletin board or pasted on the computer

Note that they must be generated and used in the same workplace; easy access for your consultation.

What are this One Point Lesson technique for?

It will help you to reduce training times and therefore costs and thereby increase profit.

It will provide you with a standardized system to impart training, document and transmit knowledge.

It is practical as it facilitates the retrieval and consultation of information and training when required and where it is needed.

It is very easy to elaborate, transmit and understand.

How can you get started with this technique?

  • The first thing you can do is identify the key topic or issue you want to convey, as well as priority knowledge and skills. For example, the procedure of cleaning a filter in an oil transfer pump.
  • Choose the person who will design the One Point Lesson document, previously, giving you basic notions of how to make a diagram, for example.
  • Applies the previously defined LUP template (or use a standard)
  • Presentation to relevant one-point lesson staff, by applying activities and tasks on-site.
  • And deliver or disseminate the document to attendees.

If you realize it is a simple and clear way to train the members of a working group, with very satisfactory results.

What kind of knowledge can I convey in a One Point Lesson?

Sometimes we do not know procedures as simple and everyday as the operation of a photocopier, either because it is new, it is not in the area to which we belong, or because by requiring it we always rely on a person who masters the procedure. Processes like this can be easily illustrated in a LUP.

If in our company we use a color code for a certain classification, a LUP is certainly the precise tool to transfer knowledge about the meaning of each color.

It is common for procedures as simple as the correct way to use a respiratory protector, and their respective adjustment tests, to be completely unknown to staff, a LUP can make this procedure easily remembered.

The above are some of the countless examples of knowledge that can be transferred through a LUP, even companies go further in their use, in such a way that it is common for the LUP to be an inescapable requirement of an Action Plan, after detecting a non-conformity, or suffering an incident or accident at work. Its use is without a doubt unlimited.

One Point Lesson Example

The FORM

The format for consigning a lesson should be standardized for the entire company, its design can be simple, and contain basic information such as:

  • Who prepared the LUP
  • Date
  • LUP title
  • Type of LUP (Safety, Environment, Small Improvement, others)
  • Revised and approved (Usually this space is staged by the area manager)
  • Consecutive (Determined by the central area in which the LUP’s file rests)
  • Step in the TPM column.

On the back of the LUP, a tab should be generated in which information is contained of the people to which the lesson was disclosed.

LUP EXAMPLE

How to implement One Point Lessons?

The main requirement for the implementation of this strategy is the provision of scenarios and tools for lessons to be developed, so that each resource has the availability of time and materials to develop lessons. So, some of the conditions are:

  • Create a standard LUP’s presentation format
  • To have in all areas of the organization the formats to prepare their lessons in them.
  • Provide each area of the company with quality LUP’s materials, for example: colors, markers, drafts, tapes, etc.
  • Give each area an element, or a visible place where LUPs are conscribed for consultation.
  • Determining an area responsible for channeling LUPs, such an area is usually TPM or RR. HH, your role is to approve and digitize (good practice) all the lessons that are presented, it is common for lessons to be returned to each area for consultation, but to rest in a digital file that is easy to consult.
  • Set a LUP’s fee per employee at certain time. In practice, when human resources manage to internalize the benefits of the strategy, this quota is far surpassed by the worker’s initiative.
  • Establish disclosure minimums, i.e. a minimum number of workers to whom each LUP should be disclosed.
  • Encourage workers with recognition based on lesson quality and disclosure volume.

Benefits of One Point Lessons

  • Leveraging the intellectual capital of the organization
  • Decreased training and training times
  • Improved procedure execution
  • Normalizing simple processes
  • Promoting organizational culture
  • Channeling ideas
  • Evidence generation: transition from tacit to explicit knowledge
  • Creative stimulus for staff

Kanban

Inventories, while lacking value-added generation for organizations, allow one or another to provide availability of the goods and services provided by them, as well as to ensure the continuity of the processes that perform them.

In this order of ideas, one of the main objectives, in terms of production control, would be to align inventories and product flow according to demand behavior.

Precisely, according to these objectives, Kanban emerges as a material control and production tool.

What is Kanban?

Kanban is a Japanese-origin word meaning card, its concept has evolved into a signal, and can be defined as a flow system that allows, through the use of signals, the mobilization of units through a production line through a pull strategy or pulling strategy.

And what is a pull system?

A pull flow system is to optimize inventories and product flow according to the actual demand behavior.

In these systems the logistics process begins with the customer’s order, and although it is the ideal system for inventory optimization, the commitment to know the demand in real time and make the chain more flexible to meet their needs is a complex bet. However, like most cutting-edge logistics practices, a large number of success stories are based on the application of a pull flow system.

Similarly, the pull flow system is applied to the production line, in which case study, customers are previous processes (internal customers), and the tool par excellence that allows to know the demand in real time and make the production line more flexible is Kanban.

So, we can conclude that Kanban pulls inventory through work centers, using cards to signal the need for another material container. Or put another way, the card is the authorization for the next production batch to occur.

Kanban Types

According to the Kanban model used by Toyota, there are basically two types of Kanban cards, these are:

  • Withdrawal kanban.
  • Production kanban.

WITHDRAWAL KANBAN

A kanban or withdrawal card specifies the reference and quantity of product that a process must withdraw from the immediately preceding process, or from its product container (small cross-process regulatory warehouses).

PRODUCTION KANBAN

A kanban or production card specifies the reference and quantity of product that a process should produce.

The operation of the Kanban system is relatively simple. Taking into account Toyota’s original model, the input system consists of a board on which we deposit the cards (signals), the board is positioned so that the operator can easily see it from its normal or usual position. Each card is associated with a container or storage unit. In case the container is empty, the card must be on the board, if otherwise full, the card must accompany the container.

So, in case the board is full of cards, it means that there are no parts left in inventory and it is important to produce units (red area of the board). If the cards are in the yellow or green area of the dashboard, it means that units are left in inventory and that it is probably not necessary to produce.

So if the vendor process starts production, take the card from the board and place it in the container where you will deposit the units corresponding to the batch. 

Once finished, it places the container in the buffer.

The client process then starts consuming the parts deposited in the buffer; Once you consume all the units in the container, you will place the card that accompanies it, on the card board, and return the container completely empty.

It should be considered that the number of cards and containers between processes are not arbitrarily defined, but are determined by the parameters of the production system, which we will address later.

To adopt kanban, production must be considered to be leveled and mixed, so that the same volumes must almost always be manufactured. This system does not allow variability of more than 15%-20% without changing the signalling parameters. In the production lines it is manufactured with a mix of products, so that different color ranges can be used by reference on the same board, so the operator will know which reference to manufacture at any time.

Advantages of using Kanban

  • Level demand with production flow: Attacks two wastes overproduction and excess inventories.
  • Improves the level of service in relation to customer compliance (internal and external).
  • Supports production planning activities.

When should Kanban be used?

Basically, Kanban should be used:

  • In production systems that have high mix of references.
  • When Lean Manufacturing is being implemented and a previous work of 5’s and SMED has been done.
  • When aiming to achieve small batches of size.
  • When you have high product inventory costs in process.

How long does it take to deploy Kanban?

The implementation of Kanban can be developed through a Kaizen event, so that it is developed by a multidisciplinary team with the active participation of production staff.

It can take between one and three months to deploy Kanban.

How to implement Kanban?

According to the implementation of the Kanban model in Toyota, the procedure for implementing Kanban is systematic and includes the following steps, in which the parameters of the production system are defined to adopt the tool:

  1. Select the references to be produced using Kanban.
  2. Calculate the number of parts per kanban (lot size).
  3. Choose the standard signal type and container type. The container may vary by reference.
  4. Calculate the number of containers per reference (production curve) and pitch sequence.
  5. Follow up (WIP or SWIP).

SELECT REFERENCES

References should be chosen according to existing product families, and it is recommended to use groups in which there is prior improvement work, such as SMED, manufacturing cells or line balances.

CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF PIECES PER KANBAN

To determine the number of parts per kanban, also known as Total Required Inventory (ITR), the following formula is applied:

Parts per Kanban (ITR) – D x TE x U x %VD

Where 

D – Demand by time horizon (e.g. and usually weeks).

TE – Delivery time in the same units of the demand horizon.

U – Number of locations (intermediate warehouses).

%VD – Demand variation level. It is obtained by the standard deviation of demand over the average demand.

For example:

You want to implement kanban between processes A and B of a production system. The material requirements of process B in the last year are as follows:

The first step is to determine the weekly demand for process B, for this we go to the average of the last year:

Monthly Average – 1542 pieces

Weekly Average (1542 x 12 months) / 52 weeks – 356 pieces per week

Demand 356 pieces a week

The second step is to determine the delivery time (TE) of the weekly demand, i.e. the 356 pieces. To do this we must consider the processing, inspection, reception, enlistment times. Let’s assume that the TE of 356 pieces is equivalent to 1 week.

Delivery time – 1 week

The third step is to determine the number of locations in the product warehouses in process, when the deployment is starting it is common to use two locations, until you reduce it to a single location. Let’s assume that a single location will be used.

Locations 1

The fourth step is to determine the variation of demand, for this we first calculate the standard deviation of demand and then divide it by the average:

%VD x 1 + (266 / 1542) – 1,1725

Now we can determine the number of parts per Kanban, or the Total Inventory Required (ITR) using the initial formula:

Parts per Kanban (ITR) x 356 x 1 x 1 x 1,1725

Parts per Kanban (ITR) – 417.4 x 418

CHOOSE THE TYPE OF SIGNAL AND THE TYPE OF STANDARD CONTAINER

There are a number of factors to consider when selecting the container for each reference, some of which are:

  • Size of the units.
  • Weight of the full container.
  • Operator load capacity.
  • Maintenance equipment available.
  • Space available.
  • Container ergonomics.

CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF CONTAINERS

The formula for determining the number of containers is very simple, for this you need to know the capacity of the containers:

Number of Containers (Total Inventory Required / Container Capacity)

For example purposes that we have been handling, suppose the container size is 20 pieces, so then:

Number of contenders (418 / 20)

Number of containers – 21

FOLLOW-UP TO WIP VS. SWIP

WIP – Product inventory in process, i.e. total inventory in the cell.

SWIP – Standard cell inventory.

WIP to SWIP – WIP / SWIP

The ideal result is equivalent to 1, i.e. the WIP is equal to SWIP.

In cases where it is greater than 1, it means that there is a lot of inventory in the cell, in case it is less than 1, it means that there is a risk that the cell will become unsused with materials. 

Kanban Principles

1. No non-compliant products are passed to the following process.

2. A kanban is removed when a process removes units from the immediately preceding process.

3. The kanban is a production order for vendor processes.

4. Nothing occurs or nothing is transported without kanban.

5. The number of kanbans should decrease over time.

1. No non-compliant products are passed to the following process.

2. A kanban is removed when a process removes units from the immediately preceding process.

3. The kanban is a production order for vendor processes.

4. Nothing occurs or nothing is transported without kanban.

5. The number of kanbans should decrease over time.

While many specialists agree that Kanban is more of a visual programming system, the truth is that Kanban is not a system where everything is put into a schedule. It is worth considering that Kanban is a production control system designed to allow the process manager to visualize production requirements in a flexible and fast manner, while ensuring that all parts or supplies are ordered or produced only if necessary

Value Maps (VSM)

Value maps, also known as Value Stream Map (VSM) value flow graphs, are tools used to fully understand processes, both within the organization and in the supply chain. The main objective by which value maps are developed is that they allow us to broadly identify activities that do not add value to the process, in the same way they allow us to know the time associated with such activities.

In practice, value mapping has become an essential activity in the face of the formulation of improvement plans, in such a way that it is part of the process diagnosis (current VSM) and the proposal of improvement strategies (VSM future).

When mapping the value flow, we must answer a number of critical operations-related issues:

  1. What is the capacity of the production system?
  2. What are the process bottlenecks?
  3. What is the customer’s purchase rate?
  4. What is the available capacity, and what is its utilization?
  5. What are the process restrictions? Are these internal or external?
  6. How can we improve the process to meet business objectives?

A value map is a graphical representation of production elements and information that allows you to know and document the current and future state of a process. It is the basis for the analysis of the value that is provided to the product or service, and is the source of knowledge of the actual constraints of a company, since it allows to visualize where the value is and where the waste is.

Relevant Indicators of a Value Map

TAKT time

Takt time is an indicator of the customer’s frequency of purchase. For many experts this is an objective time at which the production system must adapt to meet customer expectations. It is calculated as follows:

Takt Time – Available Time / Demand

For example:

Workday: 8 hours per shift

Lunch time: 0.5 hours per shift

Number of shifts: 1 daily shift

Business days per month: 22 days per month

Monthly demand: 7,510 pieces per month

Available time (8 hours/shift) – (0.5 hours/shift) – 7.5 hours/shift

Available time (7.5 hours/shift) * (60 min/hour) – 450 min/turn

Available time (450 min/turn) * (1 shift/day) * (60 sec/min) – 27,000 sec/day

Daily Demand (7,510 Pieces/Month) / (22 days/month) – 341 pieces/day

Takt time (27,000 sec/day) / (341 pieces/day) – 79 sec/piece

That is, a customer buys a part every 79 seconds, so that the standard time per piece must be equal to or less than 79 seconds.

Individual cycle time

This is the standard time associated with each operation in the process. For example: The time associated with painting a part, or the standard time associated with packing it.

Total cycle time (Manufacturing Lead Time)

It is the time that all operations last, it is calculated by adding the individual cycle times.

Lead time GAP

This time interval is when forecasts should be made against future order points and quantities. The magnitude of the GAP is directly proportional to the errors in the forecasts.

Logistics Delivery Time (Lead Time Logistic)

It understands the time interval it takes for the organization from when it is supplied with raw materials, materials and inputs until the finished product is distributed to the customer.

How to make a Value Map step by step?

Basic symbology of a Value Map (VSM)

External sources: This symbol represents customers and vendors.

Transfer Arrow: This symbol represents the transfer of raw materials and finished product. From supplier to plant or plant to customer.

Transport by cargo truck.

Transport by train.

Transport by plane.

Operation of the process.

Information: Forecast, production plan, scheduling.

Data locker with process indicators.

Push arrow to connect the flow of materials between operations when it is carried out by a push system.

Drag arrow to connect the flow of materials between operations when it is performed using a pull system.

Arrow to connect the flow of materials between operations when it is carried out by a sequence: “first inputs, first outputs”

Inventory: Raw material, product in process, finished product.

Information transmitted manually.

Information transmitted electronically.

Kaizen Lightning: This symbol represents the points where improvement events focused on implementing the expressed Lean Manufacturing tool should be performed.

Production kanban.

Transport kanban. 

Load leveling: A tool used to intercept kanban batches and level production volume.

Timeline: Displays cycle times for activities that add value, and times for activities that do not add value.

Establish product families

In order to identify the product families on which we will apply the value map, it is necessary to take into account the operations that each product passes through, and the individual cycle time of those operations.

We can say that a product family is a group of references that go through the same operations and whose cycle times do not vary much from one reference to another.

Record the following information

  • Cycle times for each operation in the process.
  • Availability of each equipment in the process.
  • Product change time for each operation (enlistment).
  • Inventories at each stage of the process.
  • Know the customer’s demand, the means by which you request, the frequency and quantity of orders.
  • Forecasts used to predict demand and supply needs, the means by which it is ordered, the frequency and quantity of orders that are made to suppliers.
  • Know the sequence of the process, the flow of materials and information.

Steps to Build a Value Flow Map

1. The map construction starts by placing the client symbol in the upper-right corner of the plane. We then connect the flow of information (manual or electronic) through which customer demand (forecast and actual orders) is related to production control. Next, production control relates to the requirements sent to the vendor with the material forecasts, connecting the flow of information by which the need for materials relates to suppliers.

VSM value flow map

2. The next step is to represent transportation from vendors to the company.

VSM value flow map

3. We draw the sequence of operations by setting the time of each operation, product change time, equipment availability, on-hand time, and in-process inventories.

VSM value flow map

4. We represent the production program that indicates the quantity to be processed by each operation, as well as the flow of information (manual or electronic) that relates these operations. We also represent transportation from the factory to customers.

VSM value flow map

5. We represent by a ladder the cycle times of each operation (added value) at the bottom of the steps; and the time that does not add value in the upper steps. Inventories must be recorded based on time and are part of what does not add value in the process. To do this we can divide the quantity of each inventory by the daily quantity required by the customer.

VSM value flow map

6. We calculate the takt time: 

Available time – 27000 seconds / day

Daily Demand – 500 units / day

Takt time s 27000 / 500 x 54 seconds / unit

This means that the customer buys with an average frequency of 54 seconds per day, so that this time should be our production goal. Already in the Value Map we can see that there are processes to be improved and inventories to be reduced. The next step will then be to build the Future Value Map in which Kaizen improvement events will need to be identified.

Kaizen Events

Kaizen is a powerful change and improvement tool. Its main usefulness is the active integration of all workers in an organization into its continuous improvement processes, gradual and orderly application processes.

While there are fundamental and cross-cutting principles, which support the Kaizen philosophy; in practice, the orderly nature of this tool requires a strong systematic component of implementation, said in other words, a method that orders the chain of improvement actions and allows its participants to be focused for effective achievement of results.

What is a Kaizen Event?

A Kaizen Event is the act of the philosophy of continuous improvement, that is, it is the chain of actions carried out by a team, whose purpose is the effective improvement of processes.

The main goal of a Kaizen event is that once each improvement process is complete, the organization can identify measurable changes in the results:

  • Reduce waste (mudas).
  • Reduce variability and quality problems (muras).
  • Improve working conditions (reduce muris).

Duration of a Kaizen Event

To have an estimate of the average duration of a Kaizen event, it is necessary to consider two fundamental variables: process impact and implementation complexity. On a regular basis, a Kaizen event can last between 1 and 7 calendar days to be executed, something like 48 to 72 effective hours of work.

How to Run a Kaizen Event

As mentioned above, Kaizen is characterized by a gradual and orderly application. So the execution of the chain of actions that are deployed in a Kaizen event, cannot lack methodology.

KAIZEN EVENT PLANNING (BEFORE)

  1. Proposition of opportunities for improvement. Opportunities raised by workers or management (focused improvement).
  2. Choice of team leader (leadership and knowledge in Kaizen methodology).
  3. Member of the team with decision-making capacity, whose role is to support the team’s proposals.
  4. Team shaping: Between 7 and 10 interdisciplinary participants (operators, engineers, quality and safety personnel) are recommended.
  5. Logistics preparation: Physical spaces, project scheduling.
  6. Communicate to participants.
  7. The Definition of the Kaizen event is recorded in a standard form.
Definition sheet of a Kaizen

EXECUTION OF THE KAIZEN EVENT (DURING)

1. Opening of the project: Project reason, scope, presentation of the team, introduction.

2. Definition of indicators, aligned to project objectives.

3. Diagnosis of the current situation: Value stream map analysis, analysis of project variables and parameters. Analysis and first observations (measurements) of the defined indicators.

3. Visit to the area where the improvements will be made: The purpose is to broaden the perspective of the project from the critical and interdisciplinary perspective of the whole team. Contact with the staff involved in the area is fundamental, knowledge regarding the perception of the situation in the area is imperative. From this visit there must be a photographic record that will serve to expose the results of the event.

4. Identification of opportunities for improvement: The team must start identifying opportunities for improvement over productivity constraints, to do so it is necessary to do so through the standard forms “Improvement Opportunity Cards” or “TPM Cards”. Everything must be searched.

Opportunity TPM Card

It is important that any opportunity for improvement detected is immediately classified, usually by its degree of criticality (A, B or C). A-rated ideas/opportunities relate to an immediate application (1 to 4 days); type B, (1 to 2 weeks), and type C, no more than 2 months. Any opportunity found that compromises the safety of the area and employees should be considered to be classified as type A, and if possible and required, a containment measure (symptomatic action) should be applied.

Once opportunities for improvement are found, the opportunity card is staged, these regularly come double, separated by charcoal paper, allowing you to have a copy. One of the cards will be at the place where the opportunity is located and the other will be given to the team to be attached to the kaizen activity itinerary.

POST-OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION DEVELOPMENT

The basis of the next stage will be the Kaizen activity itinerary, in it not only must record the actions required according to the opportunities detected, but an order must be established according to its priority.

Tracking Kaizen shares

The action plans for each detected opportunity can be addressed through a Lean Manufacturing tool, each of which will have a guide methodology of development.

The Kaizen activity itinerary must be in a visible and up-to-date location at all times, so that the entire team can track the progress of the Kaizen event.

CLOSING THE KAIZEN EVENT

For the closing activity, an exhibition with very clear content should be prepared and explicitly addressing the following points:

  1. Initial situation: What did the equipment find?
  2. Actions taken: What did the team do to improve the initial situation?
  3. Results.

For this presentation, the indicators established at the opening of the Kaizen event should be used, so that the degree of improvement achieved by the project can be quantified in a very objective way.

In addition, a visual record of improvements, actions and of course the initial situation should be displayed.

Where possible, instructions, lessons (LUPs) and procedures should be prepared to allow for continuity of improvements.

After the Kaizen event is terminated, and for four weeks, improvements are tracked, so that operators who own the process are monitored and supported so that they can be maintained continuously.

KAIZEN: Continuous improvement

Since the consolidation of the Japanese economy, many have been the questions that have been raised regarding the models and practices used in the resurgence after the devastation caused by World War II. The need to build Japan’s financial and productive foundations from the outset involved integration between high, medium and low profiles, i.e. all with equal commitment to meet the new challenges, challenges that presented the present day after day. 

Kaizen then emerged as a synergistic philosophy that integrated the responsiveness of all profiles, in order to face the challenges that were posed daily, in addition, because it was necessary not only to restore the economic fabric, but social, it became a lifestyle, which generated a cultural change that affected the productive performance of the Japanese , which is why authors such as Masaaki Imai consider Kaizen to be the key to Japanese competitive advantage.

What is Kaizen?

The term Kaizen is of Japanese origin, and means “change to improve”, which over time has been accepted as the “Continuous Improvement Process”. The literal translation of the term is:

KAI: Modifications – ZEN: To improve

The principle underpinning the Kaizen method is to actively integrate all workers in an organization into its continuous processes of improvement, through small contributions.

The implementation of small improvements, however simple as they may seem, have the potential to improve the efficiency of operations, and more importantly, create an organizational culture that ensures continuity of contributions, and the active participation of staff in a constant search for additional solutions.

The Kaizen methodology teaches us not to underestimate the impact of the simple. The sum of small contributions is a great improvement

Can it be improved without investment?

It is now common to start from the premise that a substantial investment of economic resources and time must be made to implement an improvement, moreover, when it comes to changes in information systems, or in the organization’s key technology.

While substantial resource investment seeks representative improvements in processes, in many cases it is not essential to invest to improve, it is sometimes sufficient to take advantage of one of the most undervalued capitals held by an organization, such as the intellectual capital of its human resource. This capital has a number of peculiarities that make it key, one of them is that it manifests itself in the form of experience through the people who over the years are at the forefront of operations, which is why they have a potential to identify opportunities for improvement. Kaizen offers the possibility to take advantage of this capital and achieve continuous improvements with a minimum of investment.

KAIZEN VS INNOVATION

Two alternatives can be broadly identified to improve an organization’s operations, these are innovation, and continuous improvement.

Innovation:

  • High investment
  • High impact
  • High-tech
  • Media / Low staff engagement
  • High risk of losing the level of improvement (Depreciable)

Continuous improvement process

  • Optimizing the existing resource (Low Investment)
  • Speed in implementation of changes
  • High staff participation (At all stages of improvement)
  • Small steps
  • Continuous approach to the target plotted (Non depreciable)

Combining both improvement alternatives can bring with it surprising results for the organization, in the following graph we represent the difference between an innovation process (which depreciates), and a combinative process of improvement through innovation and kaizen.

In practice, when is Kaizen used?

In practice the Kaizen methodology, and the application of its improvement events is carried out when:

  • It is intended to redistribute the areas of the company.
  • It is necessary to optimize the enlistment time of a computer or process.
  • Improving a quality attribute is required.
  • It is intended to optimize the total order cycle.
  • Waste needs to be reduced.
  • Operational expenses need to be reduced.
  • Improved order and cleanliness is required.

The above are just a few examples of the cases in which you apply the execution of a Kaizen event.

Kaizen’s Fundamental Principles

For the implementation of a kaizen philosophy or a Continuous Improvement Process, at least four fundamental principles must be applied, as follows:

  1. Optimization of current resources: The trend of organizations seeking improvement is to provide new resources. To implement Kaizen the first step is to analyze the degree of utilization of current resources, just as alternatives are sought to improve the use and functioning of these.
  2. Rapid solution implementation: If solutions to the problems that have been identified are set to long execution times, we are not practicing Kaizen. A basic principle of Kaizen is to minimize bureaucratic processes of solution analysis and authorization; in case the problems are of substantive complexity, Kaizen proposes to degreat the problem into small milestones of simple solution.
  3. Low or no cost criterion: Kaizen is a philosophy of minimal investment that complements innovation, in no way encourages a management parameter to be improved through capital intensive use leaving aside continuous improvement. The investment alternatives it proposes focus on the creation of staff participation and stimulus mechanisms.
  4. Active participation of the operator in all stages: It is essential that the operator is actively linked at all stages of the improvements, including planning, analysis, execution and monitoring. The first myth that the Kaizen dismisses is that “the operator is not paid to think.” This philosophy that seems barely supportive and inclusive has even more foundations, and is based on the operator being the best knowr of the problems related to the operation with which he coexists.

Kaizen Methodology

Prior to addressing the Kaizen methodology, the organization has already had to have defined its firm intention, on the part of management, for the development of continuous improvement activities. Once this stage has been completed, the next is an instructional design to instill the Kaizen spirit in the staff since formation. Once this is developed and already having a leader responsible for the philosophy within the company, we proceed with the problem recognition tool, which is always a good point of origin to implement a process of continuous improvement.

For this purpose there are tools such as the Deming cycle or PDCA, or tools like MOVE WorkShop. We will explain in this case Deming’s systematic cycle.

1. Plan (Plan)

This stage is the selection of the object of improvement, it explains the reasons for such choice and defines clear objectives to be achieved.

  • Current situation
  • Information Analysis (Object Data)
  • Objective

2. Do (Do)

This stage corresponds to the field work of improvement, consists of proposals for solutions and rapid implementation of the highest priority improvements. The steps included in doing are:

  • Solution proposals
  • Just Do It

3. Check (Check)

At this stage, the objective set out in the plan should be checked for the initial situation identified. Therefore, we check that the results are being achieved or else we will return to the Do. This step includes:

  • Monitoring
  • Verification

4. Act (Action)

This is a key step in continuous improvement, as ensuring that improvements are not depreciated depends on the standard or formalization of corrective measures. In order to proceed with the standardization we must have seen that the measures have achieved the expected results, in addition, we must always consider further improving the object of analysis.

  • Standardization
  • Search for optimization

Key principles and implementation phases of Lean Manufacturing

Organizations looking to implement the Lean methodology or some of its tools obviously pursue objectives related to improving the performance of their processes. In this search, many organizations have failed to achieve significant results. For this reason, it is very important to consider that Lean Manufacturing is a philosophy that requires organizational commitment and that requires a cultural adaptation. Through Lean Manufacturing’s implementation process expertise, experts have considered that there are three key principles for proper implementation of Lean activities:

  1. Lean Manufacturing is a strategic project: In such a way that it must be included in the organizational strategic plan and related to the company’s competitive priorities.
  2. The organizational structure must be adapted to the Lean methodology: in such a way that there are more concurrent processes and less “communication on the wall”, that is, that functional structures must migrate to collaborative structures.
  3. Lean Manufacturing is a commitment of all: Implementation of the strategy will be gradual but must be integrated at all levels of the organization. The biggest change in the company must be of a culture type, improvement must become a habit of all.

Phases of a Lean Manufacturing project

PHASE 0: TRADITIONAL – Preparation (1-3 months)
  •  Diagnosis of the company’s current situation
  • Plan Hoshin Kanri
  • Promotion
  • Equipment
  • Lean Management
  • Preparation 5’s
PHASE 1: APPLICATION – Pilot Areas (4-6 months)
  • 5’s application
  • Pilot team training
  • Current VMS, current and proposed layout
  • Productivity Limiting Analysis (MUDAS, MURIS, MURAS) Work Plan
PHASE 2: VALUE CHAINS – Value Chain Management (1-2 years)
  • Organization chart approach
  • Phase 1 implementation in all areas
  • Lean Accounting
  • Lean Logistics
PHASE 3: LEAN ORGANIZATIONS – Slender Thought (Permanent Habit)
  • Discipline
  • Commitment
  • Knowledge
  • Culture
  • Innovation
  • Motivation
Basically the traditional stage on the Lean trail consists in diagnosing the current situation of the organization, to design an appropriate strategic plan and form an optimal team of work. The first stage of application confronts the organization with the challenges involved in a new work philosophy, in such a way that a first experience is acquired in which the errors and the ability of the organization to obtain results from the techniques used are acquired. The value chains stage focuses on the structure of the organization, so that a process-based, non-departmentally-based concurrent work model is implemented, phase 1 application is extended to other areas, Lean logistics and accounting are initiated, so that delivery processes are optimized and performance indicators are established for decision-making based on results and vital information.
The final stage is intended to achieve a Lean organization, making there a Lean thought, based on commitment, discipline and knowledge management. A Lean organization should reflect in all its areas and processes the greatest possible value, and in all its members, the idea that such an organization is the best place to work.
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